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Analytical Chemistry

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Analytical chemistry spans nearly all areas of chemistry but involves the development of tools and methods to measure physical properties of  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Chemistry LibreTexts: Home

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The LibreTexts libraries collectively are a multiinstitutional collaborative venture to develop the next generation of openaccess texts to  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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151 Introduction to Radical Reactions Chemistry LibreTexts

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In chemistry a radical (more precisely a free radical) is an atom as consisting of a methyl "radical" and a hydroxyl "radical" - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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22: Bredts Rule Chemistry LibreTexts

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In its original form Bredts Rule stated that bridged ring systems (like camphane (Figure 1211A) and pinane (Figure 1211B)) (Fig  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Drugs Acting Upon the Central Nervous System Chemistry

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Chemical influences are capable of producing a myriad of effects on the activity and function of the central nervous system - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Hydrophobic Interactions Chemistry LibreTexts

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Hydrophobic interactions describe the relations between water and hydrophobes (low watersoluble molecules) Hydrophobes are nonpolar molecules  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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410: Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Chemistry

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The chemical formula of a simple covalent compound can be determined from its name The name of a simple covalent compound can be determined  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Chemistry of Germanium (Z32)

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Germanium categorized as a metalloid in group 14 the Carbon family Germanium a semiconductor is the first metallic metal to become a  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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114: Positron Emission Chemistry LibreTexts

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A positron also called an antielectron is an exotic bit of matter or more correctly an example of antimatter A positron is the  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Uncertainties in Measurements Chemistry LibreTexts

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This is caused by two factors the limitation of the measuring instrument Random errors: Sometimes called human error random error is  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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258: Vitamin KH2 Vitamin K Chemistry LibreTexts

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Vitamins A is a terpene and vitamins E and K have long terpene chains attached to an aromatic moiety The structure of vitamin D can be  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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31: Conservation of Mass There is No New Matter

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Potassium hydroxide (KOH) readily reacts with carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and water (H2O) How many grams of  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Cycloguanil Chemistry LibreTexts

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From Wikipedia Cycloguanil is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor and is a metabolite of the antimalarial drug proguanil its formation in  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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225: Synthesis of Primary Amines Chemistry LibreTexts

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Example #3 also starts with an SN2 reaction of cyanide with an The mechanism of the Curtius rearrangement involves the migration of an  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Cyclic Voltammetry Chemistry LibreTexts

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Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) is an electrochemical technique which measures the current that develops in an electrochemical cell under conditions  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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162: A Density Matrix Description of Quantum Relaxation

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Here σ is the reduced density operator for the system degrees of freedom This is the more commonly  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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155: Esters Structures and Names Chemistry LibreTexts

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Identify the general structure for an ester Use common names to The esters shown here are ethyl acetate (a) and methyl butyrate (b) - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Supercritical Fluids Chemistry LibreTexts

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Examples: A Phase Diagram: of the critical point that is where the supercritical fluids occur on the graph Argon (Ar) 151 485 - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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116: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions in the Laboratory

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In this esterification reaction acetic acid is combined with isopentyl alcohol along with a catalytic amount of sulfuric acid - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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91: Metal Alkene Complexes Chemistry LibreTexts

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Quite understandably so for the d 0 systems the formations of metal−olefin complexes are not observed The extent of the CC forward  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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163: Oxidation States Electron Bookkeeping Chemistry

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In hydrogen peroxide each hydrogen still has an oxidation number of +1 because each hydrogen "gives up" a single electron to oxygen - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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333: Mermins Version of Bohms EPR Gedanken Experiment

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David Mermin in the American Journal of Physics (October 1981 pp 941943) and Physics Today (April 1985 pp 3847) A spin1/2 pair is prepared  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Meso Compounds Chemistry LibreTexts

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The stereochemistry of stereocenters should "cancel out" What it means here is that when we have an internal plane that splits the compound  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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211: Empirical and Molecular Formulas Chemistry LibreTexts

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In (section 210) we discovered that benzene and acetylene have the same mass percent composition and thus it is logical that they have  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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43: Rheology Chemistry LibreTexts

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Rheology is literally the study of flow Another very simple definition attributed to chemical engineer Chris Macosko at University of  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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49: Polyatomic Ions Chemistry LibreTexts

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Write the chemical formula for an ionic compound composed of each pair of ions the magnesium ion and the carbonate ion the aluminum ion and  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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42: Cyanine Dyes Chemistry LibreTexts

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Cyanine dye molecules are planar cations The number of carbon atoms in the chain can vary as can the nature of the end groups containing  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Cyclic Voltammetry Chemistry LibreTexts

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A cyclic voltammogram is obtained by measuring the current at the working electrode during the potential scans² Figure 2 shows a cyclic  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Chemistry of Germanium (Z32)

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Germanium categorized as a metalloid in group 14 the Carbon family has five naturally occurring isotopes Germanium abundant in the  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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123: Chemical Shifts and Shielding Chemistry LibreTexts

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describe the delta scale used in NMR spectroscopy perform calculations based on the relationship between the delta value (in ppm) the observed  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Group 18: Properties of Nobel Gases Chemistry LibreTexts

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The Atomic and Physical Properties Atomic mass boiling point and atomic radii INCREASE down a group in the periodic table The first  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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613E: Madelung Constants Chemistry LibreTexts

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The first factor of Equation 613E7 is the Coulomb energy for a single pair of sodium and chloride ions while the 2ln  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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63: Line Spectra and the Bohr Model Chemistry LibreTexts

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Although objects at high temperature emit a continuous spectrum of ΔEEfinal−Einitial−ℜhcn22−(−ℜhcn21)−ℜhc(1n22−1n21) - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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JCoupling (Scalar) Chemistry LibreTexts

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A Jcoupling is an interaction between nuclei containing spin Jcouplings are also known as scalar couplings This interaction is mediated  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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96: Combining Stoichiometry and the Ideal Gas Laws

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For example zinc metal and hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride ethane (molar mass 3007 g mol 1 ) which leads directly to the mass of  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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501 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Chemistry LibreTexts

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NaCl is sodium chloride a combination of the name of the cation (sodium) and the anion (chloride) MgO is magnesium oxide MgCl 2 is magnesium  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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1914: Spectroscopy of Aldehydes and Ketones Chemistry

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use a table of characteristic absorption frequencies to assist in the determination of the structure of an unknown aldehyde or ketone  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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10: Vitamin C Analysis (Experiment) Chemistry LibreTexts

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This is then used to oxidize vitamin C (ascorbic acid C6H8O6) in reaction 102 11A: The Molecular Weight of Carbon Dioxide (Experiment) - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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37: Limiting Reactants Chemistry LibreTexts

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Then use each molar mass to convert from mass to moles Using mole ratios determine which substance is the limiting reactant After identifying  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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1: Acetylation of Aniline (Experiment) Chemistry LibreTexts

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Acetanilide is prepared from aniline using an acetylation reaction Acetylation is often used to place an acetyl protecting group on primary or  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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31: The Schrödinger Equation Chemistry LibreTexts

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Alkaloids Chemistry LibreTexts

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Properties of Benzene Chemistry LibreTexts

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49: Polyatomic Ions Chemistry LibreTexts

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Physical Properties of Cycloalkanes Chemistry LibreTexts

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Polymers Chemistry LibreTexts

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Ribose Chemistry LibreTexts

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Chemistry of Germanium (Z32)

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βKetoester Chemistry LibreTexts

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Chemistry

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Ideal gas partition function Chemistry LibreTexts

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380: The Discrete or Quantum Fourier Transform Chemistry

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Uncertainties in Measurements Chemistry LibreTexts

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Electron Configuration Chemistry LibreTexts

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Map: Chemistry The Central Science (Brown et al)

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13: Phase Equilibrium and Intermolecular Interactions

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4: The Properties of Oxygen Gas (Experiment) Chemistry

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C Elimination vs Substitution Chemistry LibreTexts

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Characteristic Reactions of Iron (Fe³⁺) Chemistry LibreTexts

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Chemistry of Vision

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Diastereotopic Chemistry LibreTexts

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10: Bonding in Polyatomic Molecules Chemistry LibreTexts

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Incommensurate composite crystal Chemistry LibreTexts

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Chirality and Symmetry Chemistry LibreTexts

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Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Application Chemistry LibreTexts

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36: Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds

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The Four Laws of Thermodynamics Chemistry LibreTexts

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Physical Constants Chemistry LibreTexts

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Osmotic Pressure Chemistry LibreTexts

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Physical Chemistry (LibreTexts)

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23: Significant Figures Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision

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Microstates Chemistry LibreTexts

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137: Osmotic Pressure Chemistry LibreTexts

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Fractional Distillation of Nonideal Mixtures (Azeotropes)

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44: Predicting Ion Charges Chemistry LibreTexts

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71: Introduction to Alkyl Halides Chemistry LibreTexts

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Iodomethane Chemistry LibreTexts

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341: Sanitation of Drinking Water Chemistry LibreTexts

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Osmotic Pressure Chemistry LibreTexts

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18: Dosage Calculations Chemistry LibreTexts

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15: Uncertainty in Measurement Chemistry LibreTexts

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Osmotic Pressure Chemistry LibreTexts

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158: Hydrolysis of Esters Chemistry LibreTexts

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123: Heat Capacity Enthalpy and Calorimetry Chemistry

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1611 Rules of the Diels–Alder Reaction Chemistry LibreTexts

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144: Allotropes of Carbon Chemistry LibreTexts

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44: Which Layer is Which? Chemistry LibreTexts

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272: Waxes Fats and Oils Chemistry LibreTexts

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25: Arrangement of Electron (Shell Model) Chemistry

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54: The Wave Nature of the Electron Chemistry LibreTexts

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Quantum Numbers for Atoms Chemistry LibreTexts

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7E: Exercises Chemistry LibreTexts

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Chirality and Symmetry Chemistry LibreTexts

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SI Units Chemistry LibreTexts

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Map: Physical Chemistry for the Biosciences (Chang)

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Powder Xray Diffraction Chemistry LibreTexts

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Ribose Chemistry LibreTexts

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74: The QuantumMechanical Model of the Atom Chemistry

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In 1926 an Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961 Nobel Prize in Physics 1933) developed wave mechanics a mathematical technique  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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37: Electron Arrangement The Quantum Model Chemistry

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57: Predicting Solubility Trends Chemistry LibreTexts

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Metal sulfates are generally soluble except for salts of Ba 2+ Pb 2+ and Ca 2+ With exception of the alkali metal ions and ammonium (Rule 1)  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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54: The Properties of Protons Neutrons and Electrons

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22: Bredts Rule Chemistry LibreTexts

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When n 5 both products bicyclo[640]alkene (S 10) (C) and and therefore correspond to the thermodynamic stability of the product - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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158: Hydrolysis of Esters Chemistry LibreTexts

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13: Properties of Matter Chemistry LibreTexts

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Semiconductors Band Gaps Colors Conductivity and Doping

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74: Time Velocity and Speed Chemistry LibreTexts

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Uncertainties in Measurements Chemistry LibreTexts

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Random errors: Sometimes called human error random error is determined by the experimenters skill or ability to perform the experiment and  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Writing Equations for Redox Reactions Chemistry LibreTexts

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Example 2: The reaction between Hydrogen Peroxide and Magnanate Ions · (VII) is reduced to manganese(II) · H2O2→O2 · H2O2→O2+2H+ · H2O2→O2+2H++2  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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22: Bredts Rule Chemistry LibreTexts

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Bredts Rule states that bridged ring systems cannot have a double bond at the bridgehead position Bretds Rule cautions us on the type of  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Types of Saturation Chemistry LibreTexts

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Example 1: Above is illustrated an example of a saturated solution In Figure 1113 there is a constant amount of water in all the beakers - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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26: Introduction to the Periodic Table Chemistry LibreTexts

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611: Collisional Cross Section Chemistry LibreTexts

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The collisional cross sections typically denoted σ and measured in units of area Introduction Atoms and molecules can move around in space and  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Phosphoglycerides or Phospholipids Chemistry LibreTexts

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The complex amino alcohols include choline ethanolamine and the amino acidserine The properties of a phospholipid are characterized by  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Substances Which Are Both Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

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Thus it makes a good solvent for redox reactions Hydrogen peroxide is considerably stronger as an oxidizing agent than as a reducing  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Ladder Operators (Creation/Annihilation Operators)

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Ladder operators increase or decrease eginvaules by a quantum An example of ladder operators are the a type of angular momentum operators - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Functional groups A Chemistry LibreTexts

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In organic chemistry functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules arranged in a specific (o)ate Ethyl acetatepng - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Iodine Clock Chemistry LibreTexts

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This reaction starts from a solution of hydrogen peroxide with sulfuric acid To this is added a solution containing potassium iodide  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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59: Athenian Society Chemistry LibreTexts

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During the reforms of Ephialtes and Pericles around 460450 BCE thetes were granted the right to hold public office - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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86: Stability of Alkenes Chemistry LibreTexts

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3: Trans2butene is the most stable because it has the lowest heat of hydrogenation In cycloalkenes smaller than cyclooctene the cis isomers - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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2nd Law of Thermodynamics Chemistry LibreTexts

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the state of entropy of the entire universe as an isolated system will always increase over  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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The Four Laws of Thermodynamics Chemistry LibreTexts

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113: Condensed Structural and LineAngle Formulas

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Condensed chemical formulas show the hydrogen atoms (or other atoms or groups) right next to the carbon atoms to which they are attached - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Ribose Chemistry LibreTexts

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Ribose and its related compound deoxyribose are the building blocks of the backbone chains in nucleic acids  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Balancing Redox Reactions Chemistry LibreTexts

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HNO 2(aq)→NO−3(aq) Step 2: Balance elements other than O and H In this example only chromium needs to be balanced This gives: - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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63: The First Law of Thermodynamics: Internal Energy

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23: Significant Figures Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision

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Many measuring tools such as rulers and graduated cylinders have small lines which need to be carefully read in order to make a measurement - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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144: Allotropes of Carbon Chemistry LibreTexts

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Physical Constants Chemistry LibreTexts

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Physical Constants Boltzmanns constant (k) 1380651 × 10 −23 J/K Charge on electron (e) 160217634 × 10 −19 C Faradays constant (F)  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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1319: The Effect of Conjugation on λmax Chemistry LibreTexts

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The Four Laws of Thermodynamics Chemistry LibreTexts

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0th Law of Thermodynamics: The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states that if two systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium with a third system the  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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211: Naming Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Chemistry LibreTexts

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provide a satisfactory name for an acid halide of given structure Secondary (RCONHR) and tertiary (RCONRR) amides are named by  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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54: The Properties of Protons Neutrons and Electrons

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Protons are a type of subatomic particle with a positive charge Protons are bound together in an atoms nucleus as a result of the strong  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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93: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Chemistry LibreTexts

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The highest energy form of electromagnetic waves are gamma (γ) rays of the wave is above or below the visible range the eye does not - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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111: Significant Figures Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision

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The significant figures in a measurement consist of all the certain digits in that measurement plus one uncertain or estimated digit - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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The Four Laws of Thermodynamics Chemistry LibreTexts

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The Four Laws of Thermodynamics · Conservation of Energy · First Law of Thermodynamics - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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152: Carboxylic Acids Structures and Names Chemistry

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Name carboxylic acids according to IUPAC nomenclature Write the condensed structural formula for 4bromo5methylhexanoic acid - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Writing Equations for Redox Reactions Chemistry LibreTexts

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Manganate(VII) ions MnO4 oxidize hydrogen peroxide H2O2 to oxygen gas The reaction is carried out with potassium manganate(VII)  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Bloch Equations Chemistry LibreTexts

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In 1946 Felix Bloch codiscoverer of NMR proposed a set of equations to described the time dependence of the net magnetization during the  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Ligand Field Theory Molecular Orbitals for an Octahedral

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Crystal field theory is successful at providing some general insights into the differing energy levels of d orbitals in coordination  - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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Calculating a Ka Value from a Known pH Chemistry LibreTexts

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The quantity pH or "power of hydrogen" is a numerical representation of the acidity or Equilibrium Concentration (M) 02 x x x - Information from chem.libretexts.org

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